in general, includes the backwash, brine, and fresh water rinse steps, necessary to prepare a water softener exchange bed for service after exhaustion. Specifically, the term may be applied to the 'brine' step in which the sodium chloride solution is passed through the exchanger bed. The term may also be used for similar operations relating to the demineralizers and certain filters.
the selected materials in a filter that form the barrier to the passage of certain suspended solids or dissolved molecules.
a reversible process in which ions are released from an insoluble permanent material in exchange for other ions in a surrounding solution; the direction of the exchange depends depends on the affinities of the ion exchanger for the ions present, and the concentrations of the ions in the solution.
an atom, or group of atoms which function as a unit, and has a positive or negative electrical charge, due to the gain or loss of of one or more electrons.
specifically, a device or system for the removal of solid particles(suspended solids); in general, includes mechanical, adsorptive, oxidizing, and neutralizing filters.
The process in which solids are worn down or ground down by friction, often between particles of the same material. filter media and ion exchange materials are subject to attrition during backwashing, regeneration, and service.