the sum of all hardness constituents in a water, expressed as their equivalent concentration of calcium carbonate. Primarily due to the calcium and magnesium in solution, but may include small amounts of metals such as iron which can act like calcium and magnesium in certain reactions.
an ion found in natural water supplies, and introduced to water in the ion exchange water softening process.
one of the elements making up the earths crust, the compounds of which when dis-solved in water make the water hard. The presence of magnesium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds.
a characteristic of natural water due to the presence of dissolved calcium and magnesium; water hardness is responsible for most scale formation in pipes and water heaters, and forms insoluble" curd" when it reacts with soaps. Hardness is usually expressed in grains per gallon, parts per million, or milligrams per liter, all as calcium carbonate equivalent.
process in which cations in solution are exchanged for other cations from an ion exchanger.
an ion with a positive electrical charge, such as calcium, magnesium and sodium.
an expression of the quantity of an undesirable material which can be removed by a water conditioner between servicing of the media, i.e., cleaning regeneration or replacement, as determined under standard test conditions. For ion exchange water softeners, the capacity is expressed in grains of hardness removal between successive regenerations and is related to the pound of salt used in regeneration. For filters, the capacity may be expressed in the length of time or total gallons delivered between servicing.
one of the principal elements making up the earths crust, the compounds of which make the water hard. The presence of calcium in water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble soap curds which are a means of clearly identifying hard water.