in general, includes the backwash, brine, and fresh water rinse steps, necessary to prepare a water softener exchange bed for service after exhaustion. Specifically, the term may be applied to the 'brine' step in which the sodium chloride solution is passed through the exchanger bed. The term may also be used for similar operations relating to the demineralizers and certain filters.
a reversible process in which ions are released from an insoluble permanent material in exchange for other ions in a surrounding solution; the direction of the exchange depends depends on the affinities of the ion exchanger for the ions present, and the concentrations of the ions in the solution.
an atom, or group of atoms which function as a unit, and has a positive or negative electrical charge, due to the gain or loss of of one or more electrons.
the state of an ion exchange material in which it is no longer capable of effective function due to the depletion of the initial supply of exchangeable ions; the exhaustion point may be defined in terms of a limiting concentration of matter in the effluent, or in the case of demineralization, in terms of electrical conductivity.
a series of events or steps which ultimately lead back to the starting point, such as the exhaustion-regeneration cycle of an ion exchange system; sometimes incorrectly used in reference to a single step to a complete cycle.