the chemical name for common salt, used in regeneration.
an ion found in natural water supplies, and introduced to water in the ion exchange water softening process.
a solution of a chemical compound used to restore the capacity of an ion exchange system. Sodium chloride brine is used as a regenerant for ion exchange water softeners, and acids and bases are used as regenerants for the cation and anion resins used in demineralization.
a reversible process in which ions are released from an insoluble permanent material in exchange for other ions in a surrounding solution; the direction of the exchange depends depends on the affinities of the ion exchanger for the ions present, and the concentrations of the ions in the solution.
an atom, or group of atoms which function as a unit, and has a positive or negative electrical charge, due to the gain or loss of of one or more electrons.
the removal of ionized inorganic minerals and salts (not organic materials)from a solution by a two phase ion exchange procedure, similar to deionization, and the two terms are often used interchangeably.
an ion with a positive electrical charge, such as calcium, magnesium and sodium.
an expression of the quantity of an undesirable material which can be removed by a water conditioner between servicing of the media, i.e., cleaning regeneration or replacement, as determined under standard test conditions. For ion exchange water softeners, the capacity is expressed in grains of hardness removal between successive regenerations and is related to the pound of salt used in regeneration. For filters, the capacity may be expressed in the length of time or total gallons delivered between servicing.
a strong solution of salts, such as the sodium chloride brine used in the regeneration of ion exchange water softeners, but also applied to the mixed sodium, calcium and magnesium chloride waste solution from regeneration.
A negatively charged ion in solution, such as bicarbonate, chloride, or sulfate.