Saline Water - water containing an excessive amount of dissolved salts, usually over 10,000 mg/l.
Salt - the common name for the specific chemical sodium chloride, used in regeneration of ion exchange water softeners.
Sequester - a chemical reaction in which certain ions are bound into a stable, water soluble compound, thus preventing undesirable action by the ions.
Sequestering Agent - a chemical sometimes fed into water to tie up undesirable ions, and eliminate the normal effects of the ions.
Soap - one of a class of compounds which possesses cleaning properties, Sodium and potassium are soluble and useful.
Soda ash - the common name for sodium carbonate, chemical compound used as an alkaline builder in some soap and detergent formulations, to neutralize acid water, and in the lime-soda ash water treatment process.
Sodium - an ion found in natural water supplies, and introduced to water in the ion exchange water softening process.
Sodium Chloride - the chemical name for common salt, used in regeneration.
Soft Water - any water which contains less than 1.0 gpg(17.1 mg/l) of hardness minerals, expressed as calcium carbonate.
Softened Water - any water that is treated to reduce hardness minerals to 1.0 gpg or less.
Solute - the substance which is dissolved in a solvent. Dissolved solids, such as the minerals found in water, are solutes.
Solvent - the liguid, such as water, in which other materials (solutes) are dissolved
Specific Gravity - the ratio of the weight of a specific volume of a substance compared to the weight of the same volume of pure water at 4 degrees c.
Sulfate Reducing Bacteria - a group of bacteria which are capable of reducing sulfates in water to hydrogen sulfide gas, thus producing obnoxious tastes and odors. These bacteria have no sanitary significance, and are classed as nuisance organisms.
Sulfur - a yellowish solid element. The term is also used as a slang expression to refer to water containing hydrogen sulfide gas.